From left, Tregg Duerson, Illinois state Rep. Carol Sente, D-Vernon Hills, and former Chicago Bears' Mike Adamle pose for a photo after a news conference in support of the Dave Duerson Act to Prevent CTE Thursday, Jan. 25, 2018, in Chicago. The Dave Duerson Act is named for the Chicago Bears defensive back who was diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy after he killed himself at the age of 50, would ban organized tackle football for Illinois children younger than 12 years old. (AP Photo/Charles Rex Arbogast)
Charles Rex Arbogast/Associated Press

Players who began playing tackle football before the age of 12 are more likely to develop signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy earlier in life, according to a study by the VA Boston Healthcare System and the Boston University School of Medicine.

ESPN obtained a copy of the study, which found players who began playing tackle football before turning 12 developed CTE-related symptoms an average of 13 years earlier than players who waited.

During an appearance on ESPN's Outside the Lines Monday, Dr. Ann McKee, the director of Boston University's Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center, said a person may be more resistant to the long-term effects of tackle football if they wait to begin playing until after the age of 12.


The researchers behind the new paper tell Slate that its less about when, exactly, these jobs might disappear, but the uncertainty the situation brings. A 2016 Pew study found that two-thirds of Americans expect that robots and computers will take over much of the work done by humans. Perhaps surprisingly, only 18 percent of the 2,001 respondents thought that automation would replace their own jobs. But people from households with incomes lower than ,000 were 10 percentage points more likely to think their jobs would be automated, something that lines up with the increased risk of automation for lower-income workers pointed out by Ball States 2017 report.

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